The default accessibility of a C field or method when no access modifier is specified is private while in Java it is protected except that derived classes from outside the package cannot inherit the field. Reflection The ability to discover the methods and fields in a class as well as invoke methods in a class at runtime, typically called reflection, is a feature of both Java and C.
A function definition is an executable expression, whose value has type function. When Lua pre-compiles a chunk, all its function bodies are pre-compiled too. Then, whenever Lua executes the function definition, the function is instantiated or closed. This function instance or closure is the final value of the expression.
Different instances of the same function can refer to different external local variables and can have different environment tables. Parameters act as local variables that are initialized with the argument values: A vararg function does not adjust its argument list; instead, it collects all extra arguments and supplies them to the function through a vararg expression, which is also written as three dots.
The value of this expression is a list of all actual extra arguments, similar to a function with multiple results. If a vararg expression is used inside another expression or in the middle of a list of expressions, then its return list is adjusted to one element.
If the expression is used as the last element of a list of expressions, then no adjustment is made unless that last expression is enclosed in parentheses. As an example, consider the following definitions: If control reaches the end of a function without encountering a return statement, then the function returns with no results.
The colon syntax is used for defining methods, that is, functions that have an implicit extra parameter self. Thus, the statement function t.
The scope of variables begins at the first statement after their declaration and lasts until the end of the innermost block that includes the declaration. Consider the following example: Because of the lexical scoping rules, local variables can be freely accessed by functions defined inside their scope.
A local variable used by an inner function is called an upvalue, or external local variable, inside the inner function. Notice that each execution of a local statement defines new local variables. Each of these closures uses a different y variable, while all of them share the same x.
Whenever an error occurs during Lua compilation or execution, control returns to C, which can take appropriate measures such as printing an error message. Lua code can explicitly generate an error by calling the error function.
If you need to catch errors in Lua, you can use the pcall function. This metatable is an ordinary Lua table that defines the behavior of the original value under certain special operations. You can change several aspects of the behavior of operations over a value by setting specific fields in its metatable.
If it finds one, Lua calls this function to perform the addition. We call the keys in a metatable events and the values metamethods. In the previous example, the event is "add" and the metamethod is the function that performs the addition.
You can query the metatable of any value through the getmetatable function. You can replace the metatable of tables through the setmetatable function. Tables and full userdata have individual metatables although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables.
Values of all other types share one single metatable per type; that is, there is one single metatable for all numbers, one for all strings, etc. A metatable controls how an object behaves in arithmetic operations, order comparisons, concatenation, length operation, and indexing.
A metatable also can define a function to be called when a userdata is garbage collected. For each of these operations Lua associates a specific key called an event. When Lua performs one of these operations over a value, it checks whether this value has a metatable with the corresponding event.
If so, the value associated with that key the metamethod controls how Lua will perform the operation. Metatables control the operations listed next.
Each operation is identified by its corresponding name.Given a string, write a python function to check if it is palindrome or not.
A string is said to be palindrome if reverse of the string is same as string. For example, “radar” is palindrome, but “radix” is not palindrome. This is a combined list of questions from various data structure e.g.
array, linked list, stack or queue. It includes some coding questions as well, which gel with data structures. Maniganda Prakash said By mistake you have mentioned that the following statement will allow only strings(You have forgotten to add 'String' type) ArrayList stringList = .
lua_absindex [-0, +0, –] int lua_absindex (lua_State *L, int idx); Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top).
A COMPARISON OF MICROSOFT'S C# PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE TO SUN MICROSYSTEMS' JAVA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE By Dare Obasanjo Introduction.
|JAVA EXAMPLE PROGRAMS||This means that variables do not have types; only values do. There are no type definitions in the language.|
The C# language is an object-oriented language that is aimed at enabling programmers to quickly build a wide range of applications for the initiativeblog.com platform.
What about returning from main()?. Semantically, returning from main is as if the program called exit (found in in C++ and in C) with the same value that was specified in the return statement.
C Program To Reverse A String using Stack Implementation. Learn How To Reverse a String using Stack as the Data Structure in C Programming. This Program Code takes in a Stack Array and Reverses it using a For Loop. Task. Encode a string using an MD5 algorithm. The algorithm can be found on Wikipedia. Optionally, validate your implementation by running all of the test values in IETF RFC () for MD5. Additionally, RFC provides more precise information on the algorithm than the Wikipedia article. The C++ Core Guidelines are a set of tried-and-true guidelines, rules, and best practices about coding in C++.
One way to think about this is that the startup code which calls main effectively looks like this: // low-level startup code provided by vendor.