Believe it or not, panic disorder plagues more than 5 million people across the globe. The primary cause is stress.
Anxiety and worry not confined to features of another Axis I disorder Symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. To know more about generalized anxiety disorder, take online psychology homework help from live psychology tutors!
Obsessive — Compulsive Disorder Either obsessions or compulsions: Obsessions as defined presence of all these four criteria Recurrent and persistent impulses, thoughts or images that are experienced at some point as intrusive and cause marked anxiety Thoughts, impulses or images are not simply excessive worries about real life problems Person attempts to ignore or suppress them with some other thought or action Person recognizes they are product of his or her own mind Compulsions as defined by the presence of the following two symptoms Repetitive behaviors hand washing, ordering, checking or mental acts praying, counting, etc.
Behaviors or mental acts aimed at reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation At least at some point person recognizes the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable. Obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress, are time-consuming more than 1 hour a day or interfere significantly with normal functioning.
For more help with obsessive compulsive disorder theory schedule psychology homework help and online tutoring with psychology tutors online. Some of the commonly used therapeutic treatment techniques are: Behavioral Therapy — Behavioral therapy work towards modifying or changing the maladaptive behavior.
It directly deals with the symptoms. It is very helpful especially for Specific and Social Phobia. Techniques used by behavioral therapists are — 1. Exposure Therapy — Basic principle of this therapy is motivating the client to maintain contact with the actual noxious stimuli or with their imagined presence until client becomes used to them.
There are 3 types of therapy based on exposure principle. Systematic Desensitization — A series of fear arousing stimuli, carefully graded from mild to strongly fearful are used.
When a client is comfortable with one level of fear producing stimuli, the next, slightly stronger stimuli is introduced. Implosive Therapy — It is based on imaginary recreation of a complex high intensity, fear arousing situation. In Vivo Experience — It is forced, prolonged and intense exposure to the fear arousing stimulus until client becomes comfortable with its presence.
Modeling and Social Skills Training — Modeling helps in acquisition of new skills and response capabilities. Modeling and guidance help the client attain a sense of mastery or self — efficacy.
Similarly social skills training also helps client acquire skills and self - confidence to deal with situations which are anxiety provoking.
Cognitive Therapy — Cognitive therapy is aimed towards modifying or changing the irrational and false beliefs of the client. Some of the popular techniques used by cognitive therapists are — 1.
Therapist helps the client review their irrational beliefs and expectations and develop more rational ways of looking at their lives.
Thought Stopping — It works on the assumption that a sudden distracting stimulus, such as an unpleasant noise, will serve to terminate obsession thoughts. Cognitive Rehearsal — In this approach client is asked to mentally rehearse adaptive approaches to problematic situations.
It is particularly useful for problems that cannot be conveniently stimulated in a clinical setting. By engaging in some other physical or mental activity, client is asked to break the flow of anxiety provoking thoughts. Psychodynamic Therapy — This approach deals with analyzing the internal conflicts of the individual.
This approach is focused on analyzing the root cause of the problem rather than superficially dealing with the symptoms. The therapy involves interpretation of dreams, free association, slip of tongue, etc.
This approach deals with the underlying cause of the problem at a deeper level but it is very time consuming. Drug Therapy — Commonly prescribed drugs for anxiety disorders are — Benzodiazepines — These include Librium, Valium, etc.
Anti-depressants — Tricyclic drugs like Imipramine, Clomipramine, etc. There are certain side- effects of these drugs like drowsiness, lethargy, motor impairment, sleep disturbances and reduced ability to concentrate. Drugs must be prescribed with care, considering the medical condition of the client.
Other Techniques — 1. Relaxation Techniques — Relaxation techniques like Jacobson Muscle Relaxation Technique helps clients attain increased calmness and decrease their feeling of apprehension and anxiety.
Bio-feedback — By indicating the increased level of physiological arousal, this method helps individual be more self- aware. It teaches them how to control brain activity and in turn how to manage stress and anxiety.
Meditation — It is aimed at client to retain the attention either by mindfulness or concentration. It leads to experience of a calmness and peace which helps reduce anxiety and fear. For effective therapeutic treatment of panic disorders and anxiety disorders it is advisable to be creative while using the therapeutic techniques for treatment of anxiety disorders.Most people are not aware that there is any such thing as panic disorder with agoraphobia.
Believe it or not, panic disorder plagues more than 5 million people across the globe. Panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder. It is that fear in places with an overwhelming dread of confinement and the individual believes that there is no possible escape which leads to panic attacks.
Aug 08, · General anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder are the six main types of anxiety that will be discussed in this paper, but panic disorder will be the main focus.
When individuals with agoraphobia are studied in the general community, they are often found to have at least one additional diagnosis, with major depressive disorder, specific phobia, and panic disorder among the most likely of these.
Stein, et al noted that panic disorder is a learned fear of a particular physical sensation while agoraphobia is a behavioral response in expectation of encountering physical sensations or .
Agoraphobia is defined within the DSM-IV TR as a subset of panic disorder, involving the fear of incurring a panic attack in those environments.
In the DSM-5, however, Agoraphobia is classified as being separate to panic disorder.