What they prize is docility, suggestibility; the child who will do what he is told; or even better, the child who will do what is wanted without even having to be told. They value most in children what children least value in themselves. Were you to stand in Honolulu and make the same statement, however, you would probably be talking about one specific island in the chain — namely, the big one to your southeast.
Significant Others, "Tyranny of the They" They say…. Individual acts to gain approval of others. Good behavior is that which pleases or helps others within the group.
Everybody is doing it. Self sacrifice to group demands is expected. Values based in conformity, Kolbergs theory to group.
Retribution, however, at this stage is collective. Forgiveness is preferable to revenge. Punishment is mainly for deterrence. Failure to punish is "unfair. The Good Citizen Respect for fixed rules, laws and properly constituted authority. Defense of the given social and institutional order for its own sake.
Responsibility toward the welfare of others in the society.
Justice demands that the wrongdoer be punished, that he "pay his debt to society," and that law abiders be rewarded.
Right behavior consists of maintaining the social order for its own sake. Self-sacrifice to larger social order is expected. Authority figures are seldom questioned. For most adults, this is the highest stage they will attain.
What if everyone did that? The Cynic Between the conventional stages and the post-conventional Levels 5 and 6, there is a transitional stage. Some college-age students who come to see conventional morality as socially constructed, thus, relative and arbitrary, but have not yet discovered universal ethical principles, may drop into a hedonistic ethic of "do your own thing.
Disrespect for conventional morality was especially infuriating to the Stage 4 mentality, and indeed was calculated to be so. Kohlberg found that some people get "stuck" in this in-between stage marked by egoism and skepticism, never able to completely leave behind conventional reasoning even after recognizing its inadequacies.
Such people are often marked by uncritical cynicism "All politicians are crooks…nothing really matters anyway"disillusionment and alienation. Why should I believe anything?
Individuals have natural or inalienable rights and liberties that are prior to society and must be protected by society. Retributive justice is repudiated as counterproductive, violative of notions of human rights.
Justice distributed proportionate to circumstances and need. Retributive punishment is neither rational nor just, because it does not promote the rights and welfare of the individual and inflicts further violence upon society.
Only legal sanctions that fulfill that purpose are imposed-- protection of future victims, deterrence, and rehabilitation. Individual acts out of mutual obligation and a sense of public good.
Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights, and in terms of standards that have been critically examined and agreed upon by the whole society--e.
Conventional authorities are increasingly rejected in favor of critical reasoning. Laws are challenged by questions of justice.Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Kolhberg’s theory of moral development states that we progress through three levels of moral thinking that build on our cognitive development.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE. Lawrence Kohlberg's Approach to Moral Education presents what the late Lawrence Kohlberg regarded as the definitive statement of his educational theory. Addressing the sociology and social psychology of schooling, the authors propose that school culture become the .
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Kohlberg began work on this topic while a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago in and expanded upon the theory throughout his life..
The theory holds that moral .
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development - Explained & Illustrated Lawrence Kohlberg () was a well-known theorist in the field of moral development. He posed moral dilemmas (e.g., Heinz Dilemma) to his subjects then asked questions to probe their reasons for recommending a specific course of action.
The Theory of Moral Development is a very interesting subject that stemmed from Jean Piaget’s theory of moral reasoning. Developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, this theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors. Cognition is embodied when it is deeply dependent upon features of the physical body of an agent, that is, when aspects of the agent's body beyond the brain play a significant causal or physically constitutive role in cognitive processing.