CR Sasikumar The rupee has fallen 5. Why has the rupee been falling?
And the plastics industry continues to grow rapidly. Just where do plastics come from? It may surprise students to learn that gutta-percha, shellac, and the horns of animals—all naturally occurring substances—were used as plastic material before the first synthetic plastics were produced.
Gutta-percha is derived from the sap of certain trees, and shellac is made from the secretions of a tiny scale insect. The first synthetic plastic was made from the plant material cellulose. InJohn Wesley Hyatt, an American printer and inventor, found that cellulose nitrate could be used as an inexpensive substitute for ivory.
The mixture could be plasticized with the addition of camphor.
Celluloid, as this new material was called, became the only plastic of commercial importance for 30 years. It was used for eyeglass frames, combs, billiard balls, shirt collars, buttons, dentures, and photographic film. Today, the plastics they discovered—polypropylene and polyethylene—are used to produce the vast majority of the thousands of plastics products all over the world.
Petroleum to Plastics The technological road from oil field to finished plastic product has numerous fascinating side trips.
Natural Gas & Oil. Oil and natural gas touch our lives in countless ways every day. Together, they supply more than 60 percent of our nation’s energy. All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s). For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors. The Great Plunge in Oil Prices: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses. John Baffes, M. Ayhan Kose, Franziska Ohnsorge, and Marc Stocker. 1. Approved for distribution by Kaushik Basu.
Petroleum is drilled and transported to a refinery. Crude oil and natural gas are refined into ethane, propane, hundreds of other petrochemical products and, of course, fuel for your car. Fluff is combined with additives in a continuous blender.
Polymer is fed to an extruder where it is melted. Melted plastic is cooled then fed to a pelletizer that cuts the product into small pellets. Pellets are shipped to customers. Customers manufacture plastic products by using processes such as extrusion, injection molding, blow molding, etc.
Plastics Processing Methods Extrusion Molding — the main process used to form plastics. A heated plastic compound is forced continuously through a forming die made in the desired shape like squeezing toothpaste from a tube, it produces a long, usually narrow, continuous product.
The formed plastic cools under blown air or in a water bath and hardens on a moving belt. Plastic fibers also are made by an extrusion process. Liquid resin is squeezed through thousands of tiny holes called spinnerets to produce the fine threads from which plastic fabrics are woven.
Injection Molding — is the second most widely used process to form plastics. The plastic compound, heated to a semifluid state, is squirted into a mold under great pressure and hardens quickly. The mold then opens and the part is released.
This process can be repeated as many times as necessary and is particularly suited to mass production methods. Injection molding is used for a wide variety of plastic products, from small cups and toys to large objects weighing 30 pounds or more.
Blow Molding — pressure is used to form hollow objects, such as the soda pop bottle or two-gallon milk bottle, in a direct or indirect method. In the direct blow-molding method, a partially shaped, heated plastic form is inserted into a mold.
Air is blown into the form, forcing it to expand to the shape of the mold.
In the indirect method, a plastic sheet or special shape is heated then clamped between a die and a cover. Air is forced between the plastic and the cover and presses the material into the shape of the die.
Imagine Life Without Them Suppose you could step inside a time machine and go back 60 or years. You may easily convince yourself a day without cars, telephones, and television—maybe even computers—might be kind of fun. Have you thought about the little things, though?
Little things are often what are missed the most.Crude oil is a fossil fuel, it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals living in ancient seas millions of years ago -most places you can find crude oil were once sea beds.
Crude oils vary in color, from clear to tar-black, and in viscosity, from water to almost solid.
The difficulties associated with transportation and refining of crude oil emulsions and produced water discharge limitations are among the conspicuous clues that have led the oilfield researchers to probe into practical demulsification methods for many decades.
OxCarre Research Paper The Relationship Between Oil Price and Costs in the Oil and Gas Industry Economics Team, BP. The Relationship Between Oil Price and Costs Keywords: Natural Resource Extraction, Crude Oil Price, Upstream Cost.
This paper examines the factors responsible for changes in crude oil prices. The paper reviews the statistical behavior of oil prices, relates these to the predictions of theory, and looks in detail at key features of petroleum demand and supply.
Apr 26, · Every crude oil has different properties, such as sulfur content (sweet to sour) or density (light to heavy), and requires a specific chemical processing facility to handle it (Permian Basin Oil&Gas).
Crude Oil Jan Stock - CLF9 news, historical stock charts, analyst ratings, financials, and today’s Crude Oil Jan stock price.