When the most recent Indonesian dry season was at its peak in September and Octobersmoke from peatland and forest fires cloaked large areas of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua in a suffocating haze that dimmed the sky to a sinister orange, closed schools and businesses, and cancelled flights throughout Southeast Asia. The fires intensified while Jokowi was in the United States, and he was forced to cut short his visit to return to Indonesia to coordinate the national response. USAID After the rains came in early November, many parts of Indonesia were left in ashes—with significant impacts to both the environment and the economy. Fires in Indonesia occur annually—fueled by the slashing and burning of forests and peatlands primarily for the production of commodity crops such as palm oil.
This catastrophe cannot be measured only in parts per million. The fires are destroying treasures as precious and irreplaceable as the archaeological remains being levelled by Isis. Orangutans, clouded leopards, sun bears, gibbons, the Sumatran rhinoceros and Sumatran tiger, these are among the threatened species being driven from much of their range by the flames.
But there are thousands, perhaps millions, more. One of the burning provinces is West Papuaa nation that has been illegally occupied by Indonesia since I spent six months there when I was 24, investigating some of the factors that have led to this disaster.
At the time it was a wonderland, rich with endemic species in every swamp and valley.
Who knows how many of those have vanished in the past few weeks? This week I have pored and wept over photos of places I loved that have now been reduced to ash. Nor do the greenhouse gas emissions capture the impact on the people of these lands.
After the last great conflagration, inthere was a missing cohort in Indonesia of 15, children under the age of three, attributed to air pollution. This, it seems, is worse. The surgical masks being distributed across the nation will do almost nothing to protect those living in a sunless smog.
Members of parliament in Kalimantan Indonesian Borneo have had to wear face masks during debates. The chamber is so foggy that they must have difficulty recognising one another. It is the land itself.
Much of the forest sits on great domes of peat. When the fires penetrate the earth, they smoulder for weeks, sometimes months, releasing clouds of methane, carbon monoxide, ozone and exotic gases such as ammonium cyanide.
The plumes extend for hundreds of miles, causing diplomatic conflicts with neighbouring countries. Canals have been cut through the peat to drain and dry it. Plantation companies move in to destroy what remains of the forest to plant monocultures of pulpwood, timber and palm oil.
The easiest way to clear the land is to torch it.An analysis of new fire history data on Global Forest Watch Fires confirms that fires tend to be concentrated on agricultural concessions and peatlands in Indonesia.
Seeing where fires occurred in the past can help inform fire prevention efforts, like companies’ no-burn commitments, government land use and restoration strategies, or village. [PESTEL ANALYSIS OF INDONESIA] October 3, cost with effective use of input.
% of Indonesia¶s populations are literate in which male are 94% and female are %. % of Indonesia GDP is spent on education. A World Bank analysis revealed that last year’s fires cost Indonesia $ billion in just five months—or twice the reconstruction costs of the Indian Ocean tsunami.
Sadly, this isn’t a stand-alone event. The illegal fires are caused by agricultural firms and farmers clearing land The fires harm neighbouring nations and produce greenhouse gases Public data on land ownership would help to tackle the blazes Indonesia's forest fires raged again for most of June, choking residents of much of Sumatra.
This analysis is based on data from on fire hotspots (derived from NOAA-AVHRR) and on the NINO4 index. The four graphs that appear further down on this page show the results of this analysis for each of the four Kalimantan provinces in Indonesia. The analysis from the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) concluded that "using fire for land acquisition and clearing generates a cashflow of at .